emf-info

Glossary

Terms that are frequently used in the knowledge pages are explained in the glossary. Many biological and medicinal terms are listed. This does not automatically mean that EMFs were a health problem. The connections between EMF, biology and health are shown in the topic pages.

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)
Definition:

Alzheimer’s disease is primarily an age-related, chronic, non-infectious disease of the sleep and crown areas of the brain, in which slowly and progressively the nerve cells die and thereby reduce the mental abilities. More than half of all dementia cases are applicable to AD.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Definition:

ALS is a disease (death) of the nerve cells (motor neuron) responsible for muscle movement and which are found in the brain stem, the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord. This results in muscular atrophy (paralysis) and muscle tonicity (spasticity) amongst other things. ALS is an infrequent illness. The causes are unknown.

Bases
Definition:

More precisely: nucleic bases. These molecules belong to the basic building blocks of the DNA and code the genetic information. Four bases are used in the DNA which form, in pairs, the rungs of the double helix (Adenine-Thymine; Guanine-Cytosine). 

Blood pressure
Definition:

The pressure, generated by the heart, of the blood circulating within the blood vessels.

Carcinogenesis
Definition:

Gradual change of a normal cell into a malignant tumour.

cardio vascular changes
Definition:

Physiological changes which affect the heart and the blood vessels.

Central Nervous System (CNS)
Definition:

The central nervous system (CNS) encompasses the spinal cord and the brain as well as its covering membrane. All information from the body and the environment come together and are processed here, and then the reactions generated in the shape of movement, behaviour and organ activity form.

Cerebral oedema
Definition:

Swelling of the brain tissue caused by an accumulation of fluid.

Chromosomes
Definition:

Threadlike structure of DNA and adjacent proteins (“packing”). A human being has 46 chromosomes that hold the genetic make-up (genome).

Cognitive performance
Definition:

The abilities connected to perception and understanding (thinking, remembering, learning and judgement).

Cytogenetics
Definition:

An area of genetics that deals with structures visible with an optical microscope, in particular chromosomes. Cytogenetic conspicuity portrays major changes of the genetic make-up which can belong to symptoms of serious diseases.

DNA
Acronym:

Abbreviation for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. In normal conditions the DNA is organised in the shape of a double Helix. The two (phosphate sugar) strands are held together by base pairs (see “Bases”) which appear like rungs.

Electro-sensibility (EHS, IEI-EMF)
Definition:

Electro-sensibility (electromagnetic hyper-sensibility - EHS; idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields - IEI-EMF) refers to the development of discomfort and clinical symptoms which the affected parties attribute to EMFs.

Electro-sensitivity
Definition:

Electro-sensitivity is the ability of a person to perceive/feel electrical fields from power lines (or weak electric currents) even at low field strength.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Definition:

An investigation whereby the electrical activity of the heart is measured and portrayed.

Electroenzephalogram (EEG)
Definition:

Graphical representation of the brain’s electrical activity.

Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)
Definition:

Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in the frequency spectrum between 0 Hz and 300 GHz. 0 Hz = DC fields; in the AC part of the spectrum, we differentiate between (extremely) low frequency, intermediate frequency and radio frequency fields.

epidemiological studies
Definition:

Studies that investigate the occurrence of illnesses.

Exposure
Definition:

Refers to when an organism is exposed to defined conditions/substances.

Field strength
Definition:

The field strength is a measure of the energy which an electric or magnetic field exerts on a charged (in the case of magnetic field also a moving) particle. The strength of electric fields is quoted in Volts per metre (V/m), the strength of the magnetic fields is normally given in Tesla respectively Microtesla (T, µT).

genetic factors
Definition:

Causes and effects which can be attributed to heredity (genetic).

Genotoxic
Definition:

An effect that is toxic (poisonous, damaging) for the genome (chemical: the DNA).

Heart frequency
Definition:

The number of heart beats per minute.

Hormone
Definition:

Hormones are chemical messenger substances which are produced in and distributed by specialised cells.  They serve to regulate the function of the organs and metabolic processes.

In vitro studies
Definition:

Laboratory studies with isolated cells or cell cultures taken from living things.

In vivo studies
Definition:

Laboratory studies on living organisms (in particular, animal studies).

ionising radiation
Definition:

Radiation that possesses sufficient energy to change the building blocks of living things (atoms, molecules). Ionising radiation such as X-rays or radio activity can directly and irreparably damage an organism.

melatonin
Definition:

Melatonin is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in the brain and generated under the influence of darkness. It regulates the day-night rhythm of humans and animals by changes in its concentration.

Micronucleus
Definition:

During cell division the chromosomes cannot be completely ejected from the nucleus due to the influence of genotoxic substances. The chromosomes or parts of them remain as fragments with their own micronucleus membrane shell.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Definition:

MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. The symptoms (sight, speech and movement disorders, muscle pain, etc.) can be very different according to the location of the focus of the inflammation. The disease normally advances in phases over many years. The causes are unknown.

Non-Ionising Radiation (NIR)
Definition:

Within the frequency spectrum non-ionising radiation includes electromagnetic fields (EMF), infrared radiation and optical radiation. UV radiation constitutes the transition to the so-called ionising radiation. The latter is so is energy-rich that it can directly damage the human body. This is not the case with NIR.

Parkinson’s Disease
Definition:

Like Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease is characterised by the slow and progressive death of the nerve cells in old age. The mesencephalon or midbrain, which controls movement, is affected. Parkinson is the second most prevalent dementia.

Permeability
Definition: Durchlässigkeit
Pineal Gland
Definition:

(Epiphysis, conarium) Small, flat gland located in the interbrain (diencephalon).

Protein
Definition:

Proteins are substances built up from amino acids. The construction of the individual proteins (the amino acid sequence) is stored in the DNA and is retrieved from there for the production. Proteins serve as a support structure and, in the form of hormones, as messenger substances. As enzymes they facilitate biochemical processes or function as antibodies to safeguard against infections.

pulsed radiation
Definition:

A GSM telephone does not transmit continuously during a conversation but does so in short time slots of about a half-thousandth of a second (0.5 milliseconds / 0.5 ms) with longer pauses (ca. 4 ms) in between. Every second about 200 short data packets are transmitted in this way.

Strand break
Definition:

A strand of the double helix can break apart, particularly in locations where base damage exists, due to a chemical reaction with molecules in the area. Less than 1% of breaks are double strand breaks.

Thermic effect
Definition:

Energy absorption is the scientifically documented effect of high frequency electromagnetic fields on the body, i.e. the tissues absorb the power of the field (the field is attenuated thereby) and warm up.

white blood corpuscles
Definition:

Blood cells that fend off diseases.