Terms that are frequently used in the knowledge pages are explained in the glossary. Many biological and medicinal terms are listed. This does not automatically mean that EMFs were a health problem. The connections between EMF, biology and health are shown in the topic pages.

In addition, we also recommend the glossary of the EMF-portal of the Uniklinik RWTH Aachen.


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Alzheimer's Disease (AD)

Alzheimer's disease is primarily an age-related, chronic, non-infectious disease of the sleep and crown areas of the brain, in which slowly and progressively the nerve cells die and thereby reduce the mental abilities. More than half of all dementia cases are applicable to AD.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

ALS is a disease (death) of the nerve cells (motor neuron) responsible for muscle movement and which are found in the brain stem, the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord. This results in muscular atrophy (paralysis) and muscle tonicity (spasticity) amongst other things. ALS is an infrequent illness. The causes are unknown.


More precisely: nucleic bases. These molecules belong to the basic building blocks of the DNA and code the genetic information. Four bases are used in the DNA which form, in pairs, the rungs of the double helix (Adenine-Thymine; Guanine-Cytosine). 

Blood pressure

The pressure, generated by the heart, of the blood circulating within the blood vessels.


Gradual change of a normal cell into a malignant tumour.

cardio vascular changes

Physiological changes which affect the heart and the blood vessels.

Central Nervous System (CNS)

The central nervous system (CNS) encompasses the spinal cord and the brain as well as its covering membrane. All information from the body and the environment come together and are processed here, and then the reactions generated in the shape of movement, behaviour and organ activity form.

Cerebral oedema

Swelling of the brain tissue caused by an accumulation of fluid.


Threadlike structure of DNA and adjacent proteins («packing»). A human being has 46 chromosomes that hold the genetic make-up (genome).

Cognitive performance

The abilities connected to perception and understanding (thinking, remembering, learning and judgement).


An area of genetics that deals with structures visible with an optical microscope, in particular chromosomes. Cytogenetic conspicuity portrays major changes of the genetic make-up which can belong to symptoms of serious diseases.


Abbreviation for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. In normal conditions the DNA is organised in the shape of a double Helix. The two (phosphate sugar) strands are held together by base pairs (see «Bases») which appear like rungs.

Electro-sensibility (EHS, IEI-EMF)

Electro-sensibility (electromagnetic hyper-sensibility - EHS; idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields - IEI-EMF) refers to the development of discomfort and clinical symptoms which the affected parties attribute to EMFs.


Electro-sensitivity is the ability of a person to perceive/feel electrical fields from power lines (or weak electric currents) even at low field strength.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

An investigation whereby the electrical activity of the heart is measured and portrayed.

Electroenzephalogram (EEG)

Graphical representation of the brain's electrical activity.

Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)

Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in the frequency spectrum between 0 Hz and 300 GHz. 0 Hz = DC fields; in the AC part of the spectrum, we differentiate between (extremely) low frequency, intermediate frequency and radio frequency fields.

epidemiological studies

Studies that investigate the occurrence of illnesses.


Refers to when an organism is exposed to defined conditions/substances.

Field strength

The field strength is a measure of the energy which an electric or magnetic field exerts on a charged (in the case of magnetic field also a moving) particle. The strength of electric fields is quoted in Volts per metre (V/m), the strength of the magnetic fields is normally given in Tesla respectively Microtesla (T, µT).