Health – Cognitive abilities
Under the term cognitive abilities one understands in general the mental ability or performance, such as:
In humans, these cognitive abilities are based primarily on speech. Instinct, reflexes, emotions, feelings, intuition, creativity and habits are frequently differentiated from cognition.
The influence of electromagnetic fields
In order to investigate possible effects of EMFs on cognitive abilities studies on both animals and humans have been made. Specialised methods of testing were used such as reaction tests in the human experiments and labyrinth tests in the animal tests. Cognitive performance could be recorded with an electroencephalogram (Electroencephalogram (Electroenzephalogram (EEG))). The aim thereby is to find out whether, where and how EMFs influence cerebral activity and the functions connected to it.
In particular, the short term effect of high frequency EMFs from mobile telecommunications (handsets and base stations) have been investigated in recent years. Short term means a time period of minutes up to several hours. Long term studies are not yet available. The results until now are inconsistent. Some studies suggest that exposure to EMFs emanating from mobile communications can lead to an improvement of attentiveness and memory. Other studies, however, identified no effects or also an impairment of the cognitive powers. The diversity of the results cannot yet be scientifically explained. Undoubtedly different methodical approaches in the individual studies play a role.
Regarding ELF exposure, the majority of studies do not give evidence that magnetic fields impact human cognition.
It is important to stress here that the influences detected constitute no health risks. All the effects are comparatively subtle and lay within the natural fluctuations or the daily form. The German Commission on Radiological Protection stresses that no detrimental effects on health were present amongst any of the documented effects.
There are indications that a short term effect from EMFs emanating from mobile communications can influence the cognitive abilities. However, the results until today are not consistent, indeed they are sometimes contradictory. No effects on health have been identified. Regarding ELF magnetic fields, overall the available evidence points towards absence of effects on cognition.
BioInitiative Working Group (2012). Health effects from radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. BioInitiative Report, www.bioinitiative.org. Section 9.
Barth, A., Ponocny, I., Gnambs, T., Winker, R. (2011). No effects of short-term exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic fields on human cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Bioelectromagnetics, first published online: 18 AUG 2011, DOI: 10.1002/bem.20697
Barth, A., Ponocny, I., Ponocny-Seliger, E., Vana, N., Winker, R. (2010). Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field exposure on cognitive functions: results of a meta-analysis. Bioelectromagnetics, 31, 3, 173-179.
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Di Lazzaro, V., F. Capone, F. Apollonio, P. A. Borea, R. Cadossi, L. Fassina, C. Grassi, M. Liberti, A. Paffi, M. Parazzini, K. Varani and P. Ravazzani (2013). A consensus panel review of central nervous system effects of the exposure to low-intensity extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. Brain Stimul, 6, 4, 469-476.
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Independent Advisory Group on Non-Ionising Radiation (AGNIR) (2012). Health effects from radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. U.K. Health Protection Agency, Oxfordshire. Chapter 5.1.1, 205-207.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection ICNIRP (2009). Exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields, bilogical effects and health consequences (100 kHz-300 GHz). Chapter II.5.1, 223-257.
Regel, S.J., Achermann, P. (2011). Cognitive performance measures in bioelectromagnetic research - critical evaluation and recommendations. Environ Health (online publication), 10 (10), doi:10.1186/1476-069X-10-10.
Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (2011). Nichtionisierende Strahlung - Umwelt und Gesundheit. Programmsynthese. Nationales Forschungsprogramm NFP 57. Bern: SNF.
Van Rongen E, Croft R, Juutilainen J, Lagroye I, Miyakoshi J, Saunders R, de Seze R, Tenforde T, Verschaeve L, Veyret B, Xu Z (2009). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the human nervous system. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews, 12, 8, 572-597.