italics: studies excluded due to bad quality; underscore: review- and meta-studies; plain: included studies

Back to overview

Back to Knowledge Site


Al-Damegh, M.A. (2012). Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 67(7): 785-792.

ANSES (2013). Update of the Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and health” expert appraisal. Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail, Maisons-Alfort.

Atasoy, H.I., M.Y. Gunal, P. Atasoy, S. Elgun, Bugdayci, G. (2013). Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices. J Pediatr Urol 9(2): 223-229.

Bakacak, M., M.S. Bostanci, R. Attar, O.K. Yildirim, G. Yildirim, Z. Bakacak, H. Sayar, Han, A. (2015). The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 31(6): 287-292.

Barazani, Y., B.F. Katz, H.M. Nagler, Stember, D.S. (2014). Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health. Urol Clin North Am 41(1): 55-66.

BfS (2008). Ergebnisse des Deutschen Mobilfunk Forschungsprogramms. Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter.

Dama, M.S., Bhat, M.N. (2013). Mobile phones affect multiple sperm quality traits: a meta-analysis. F1000Res 2: 40.

Dasdag, S., M. Tas, M.Z. Akdag Yegin, K. (2015). Effect of long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on testes functions. Electromagn Biol Med 34(1): 37-42.

Falzone, N., C. Huyser, P. Becker, D. Leszczynski, Franken, D.R. (2011). The effect of pulsed 900-MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa. Int J Androl 34(1): 20-26.

Gorpinchenko, I., O. Nikitin, O. Banyra, Shulyak, A. (2014). The influence of direct mobile phone radiation on sperm quality. Cent European J Urol 67(1): 65-71.

ICNIRP (2018). Draft - ICNIRP Guidelines: Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz): Appendix B: Health Risk Assessment Literature.

Imai, N., M. Kawabe, T. Hikage, T. Nojima, S. Takahashi, Shirai, T. (2011). Effects on rat testis of 1.95-GHz W-CDMA for IMT-2000 cellular phones. Syst Biol Reprod Med 57(4): 204-209.

Jurewicz, J., M. Radwan, W. Sobala, D. Ligocka, P. Radwan, M. Bochenek, Hanke, W. (2014). Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors. Syst Biol Reprod Med 60(1): 43-51.

Karaca, E., B. Durmaz, H. Altug, T. Yildiz, C. Guducu, M. Irgi, M. G.C. Koksal, F. Ozkinay, C. Gunduz, Cogulu, O. (2012). The genotoxic effect of radiofrequency waves on mouse brain. Journal of neuro-oncology 106(1): 53-58.

Kesari, K. K., Behari, J. (2012). Evidence for mobile phone radiation exposure effects on reproductive pattern of male rats: role of ROS. Electromagn Biol Med 31(3): 213-222.

Kesari, K.K., S. Kumar, Behari, J. (2011a). 900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain. Electromagn Biol Med 30(4): 219-234.

Kesari, K.K., S. Kumar, Behari, J. (2011b). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 164(4): 546-559.

Kesari, K.K., Behari, J. (2010). Microwave exposure affecting reproductive system in male rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 162(2): 416-428.

Kesari, K.K., S. Kumar, Behari, J. (2010). Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats. Indian J Exp Biol 48(10): 987-992.

Kumar, S., S. Murarka, V.V. Mishra, Gautam, A.K. (2014). Environmental & lifestyle factors in deterioration of male reproductive health. Indian J Med Res 140 Suppl: S29-35.

Lee, H.J., J.S. Lee, J.K. Pack, H. Choi, N. Kim, S.H. Kim, Lee, Y.S. (2009). Lack of teratogenicity after combined exposure of pregnant mice to CDMA and WCDMA radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res 172(5): 648-652.

Lukac, N., P. Massanyi, S. Roychoudhury, M. Capcarova, E. Tvrda, Z. Knazicka, A. Kolesarova, Danko, J. (2011). In vitro effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on bovine spermatozoa motility. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A 46(12): 1417-1423.

Mahmoudabadi, F. S., S. Ziaei, M. Firoozabadi, Kazemnejad, A. (2015). Use of mobile phone during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion. J Environ Health Sci Eng 13: 34.

Mortazavi, S.M., K.R. Shirazi, Mortazavi, G. (2013). The study of the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations on birth weight of newborns to exposed mothers. J Nat Sci Biol Med 4(1): 213-217.

Odaci, E., Ozyilmaz, C. (2015). Exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field for 1 hour a day over 30 days does change the histopathology and biochemistry of the rat testis. Int J Radiat Biol 91(7): 547-554.

Otitoloju, A.A., I. A. Obe, O.A. Adewale, O.A. Otubanjo, Osunkalu, V.O. (2010). Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84(1): 51-54.

Panagopoulos, D.J. (2012). Effect of microwave exposure on the ovarian development of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell biochemistry and biophysics 63(2): 121-132.

SCENIHR (2015). Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks, Brussels.

Shahin, S., V. Mishra, S.P. Singh, Chaturvedi, C.M. (2014). 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress. Free Radic Res 48(5): 511-525.

Sienkiewicz, Z., J. Schüz, A.H. Poulsen, Cardis, E. (2012). Risk analysis of human exposure to electromagnetic fields. (revised). EFHRAN, European Commission. Brussels.

SSK (2011). Biologische Auswirkungen des Mobilfunks, Gesamtschau. Bonn, Strahlenschutzkommission.

SSM (2018). Recent Research on EMF and Health Risk - Twelfth report from SSM’s Scientific Council on Electromagnetic Fields. Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm.

Zhou, L.Y., H.X. Zhang, Y.L. Lan, Y. Li, Y. Liang, L. Yu, Y.M. Ma, C.W. Jia, Wang, S.Y. (2017). Epidemiological investigation of risk factors of the pregnant women with early spontaneous abortion in Beijing. Chin J Integr Med 23(5): 345-349.

Zilberlicht, A., Z. Wiener-Megnazi, Y. Sheinfeld, B. Grach, S. Lahav-Baratz, Dirnfeld, M. (2015). Habits of cell phone usage and sperm quality - does it warrant attention? Reprod Biomed Online 31(3): 421-426.